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The purpose of the triple bottom system was similar to that of the anti-torpedo bulkheads; it was to absorb the shock of underwater explosions. Technical specifications of the battleship USS Iowa Displacement: 43 t light 48 t standard 55 t optimum battle 57 t full load 59 t maximum Length ,m ft oa ,m Barbettes — — mm, Kagero’s Area. II Soviet Heavy Fighters — Articles Most Read Fokker D. Super Model Magazyn Modelarski. SS Red Oak Victory. The Japanese Cruiser Asama. Battleships Scharnhorst and Gneisenau vol.

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Shopbop Designer Fashion Brands. Deals and Shenanigans. These guns fire high explosive- and armor-piercing shells, and can fire a inch shell approximately The guns are 66 feet 20 m long 50 times their inch bore, or 50 calibers from breechface to muzzle.

About 43 feet 13 m protrudes from the gun house. Each gun weighs about , pounds , kg without the breech, or , pounds , kg with the breech. The maximum firing rate for each gun is two rounds per minute. Each gun rests within an armored turret, but only the top of the turret protrudes above the main deck. The turret extends either four decks Turrets 1 and 3 or five decks Turret 2 down. The lower spaces contain rooms for handling the projectiles and storing the powder bags used to fire them.

Each turret required a crew of between 85 and men to operate. The ship could fire any combination of its guns, including a broadside of all nine. The large-caliber guns were designed to fire two different conventional inch shells: the 2,pound 1, kg Mk.

At 35, yards 20 mi; 32 km , a shell from a 45 cal would strike a ship at an angle of In the s, the W23, an adaptation of the W19 nuclear artillery shell was developed specifically for the inch guns.

The shell weighed 1, pounds kg had an estimated yield of 15 to 20 kilotons of TNT 63, to 84, GJ , [41] and its introduction made the Iowa -class battleships’ inch guns the world’s largest nuclear artillery , [42] and made these four battleships the only US Navy ships ever to have nuclear shells for naval guns.

Originally designed to be mounted upon destroyers built in the s, these guns were so successful that they were added to many American ships during the Second World War, including every major ship type and many smaller warships constructed between and They were considered to be “highly reliable, robust and accurate” by the Navy’s Bureau of Ordnance.

It was The guns’ elevation could be raised or lowered at about 15 degrees per second. They could be turned at about 25 degrees per second. However, this did not mean that it possessed inferior anti-air abilities. As proven during gunnery tests conducted aboard North Carolina the gun could consistently shoot down aircraft flying at 12,—13, feet 2.

The removal of four of the gun mounts was required for the battleships to be outfitted with the armored box launchers needed to carry and fire Tomahawk missiles.

At the time of the Persian Gulf War , these guns had been largely relegated to littoral defense for the battleships. Since each battleship carried a small detachment of Marines aboard, the Marines would man one of the 5-inch gun mounts. At the time of their commissioning, all four of the Iowa -class battleships were equipped with 20 quad 40 mm mounts and 49 single 20 mm mounts. The Oerlikon millimeter 0. When the Iowa -class battleships were commissioned in and , they carried twenty quad 40 mm AA gun mounts, which they used for defense against enemy aircraft.

These heavy AA guns were also employed in the protection of allied aircraft carriers operating in the Pacific Theater of World War II , and accounted for roughly half of all Japanese aircraft shot down between 1 October and 1 February Specifically, the geared turbines on Iowa and Missouri were provided by General Electric , while the equivalent machinery on New Jersey and Wisconsin was provided by Westinghouse. The machinery spaces were longitudinally divided into eight compartments with alternating fire and engine rooms to ensure adequate isolation of machinery components.

The steam is first passed through the HP turbine which turns at up to 2, rpm. The steam, largely depleted at this point, is then passed through a large conduit to the LP turbine. By the time it reaches the LP turbine, it has no more than 50 psi kPa of pressure left. The LP turbine increases efficiency and power by extracting the last little bit of energy from the steam. After leaving the LP turbine, the exhaust steam passes into a condenser and is then returned as feed water to the boilers.

Water lost in the process is replaced by three evaporators, which can make a total of 60, US gallons per day 3 liters per second of fresh water. After the boilers have had their fill, the remaining fresh water is fed to the ship’s potable water systems for drinking, showers, hand washing, cooking, etc.

All of the urinals and all but one of the toilets on the Iowa class flush with saltwater in order to conserve fresh water. The turbines, especially the HP turbine, can turn at 2, rpm; their shafts drive through reduction gearing that turns the propeller shafts at speeds up to rpm, depending upon the desired speed of the ship.

The two inner shafts were housed in skegs to smooth the flow of water to the propellers and improve the structural strength of the stern. Each of the four engine rooms has a pair of 1, kW Ship’s Service Turbine Generators SSTGs , providing the ship with a total non-emergency electrical power of 10, kW at volts alternating current. Additionally, the vessels have a pair of kW emergency diesel generators.

They were located on the mainmast and forward fire-control tower of the battleships, respectively. As the war drew to a close, the United States introduced the SK-2 air-search radar and SG surface-search radar; the Iowa class was updated to make use of these systems between and At the same time, the ships’ radar systems were augmented with the installation of the SP height finder on the main mast.

In addition to these search and navigational radars, the Iowa class were also outfitted with a variety of fire control radars for their gun systems. Beginning with their commissioning, the battleships made use of a pair Mk 38 gun fire control systems with Mark 8 fire control radar to direct the inch guns and a quartet of Mk 37 gun fire control systems with Mark 12 fire control radar and Mark 22 height finding radar to direct the 5-inch gun batteries.

Like all battleships, the Iowa s carried heavy armor protection against shellfire and bombs with significant underwater protection against torpedoes. The protection system consists of Class A face-hardened Krupp cemented K. The citadel consisting of the magazines and engine rooms were protected by an STS outer hull plating 1. The armor belt extends to the triple bottom, where the Class B lower portion tapers to 1.

The ends of the armored citadel are closed by The transverse bulkhead armor on Missouri and Wisconsin was increased to The deck armor consists of a 1. Over the magazines, the splinter deck is replaced by a 1-inch 25 mm STS third deck that separates the magazine from the main armored deck. The Iowa s had heavily protected main battery turrets, with The turret barbettes’ armor is Class A with The conning tower armor is Class B with The secondary battery turrets and handling spaces were protected by 2.

The propulsion shafts and steering gear compartment behind the citadel had considerable protection, with The Iowa s’ torpedo defense was based on the South Dakota s’ design, with modifications to address shortcomings discovered during caisson tests. The system is an internal “bulge” that consists of four longitudinal torpedo bulkheads behind the outer hull plating with a system depth of The extension of the armor belt to the triple bottom, where it tapers to a thickness of 1.

The torpedo bulkheads were designed to elastically deform to absorb energy and the two outer compartments were liquid loaded in order to disrupt the gas bubble and slow fragments. The outer hull was intended to detonate a torpedo, with the outer two liquid compartments absorbing the shock and slowing any splinters or debris while the lower armored belt and the empty compartment behind it absorb any remaining energy. However, the Navy discovered in caisson tests in that the initial design for this torpedo defense system was actually less effective than the previous design used on the North Carolina s’ due to the rigidity of the lower armor belt causing the explosion to significantly displace the final holding bulkhead inwards despite remaining watertight.

By battleship standards they were slender for their length, in order to be able to pass through the Panama Canal. This made them difficult to armor, especially forward, near the 1 turret.

The ships are actually two feet wider than what is accepted in the present day as a Panamax configuration, only allowing a single foot of clearance either side of the hull. The follow-on Montana class battleships, had they been completed, would have been built to a post- Panamax design, having a beam 12 feet wider than the Iowa s. The Iowa s were unique in several respects.

First, they were designed as “fast” battleships, able to rely on an even mix of speed and firepower, and capable of sailing at the same speed as the carrier force. Second, although they had to be designed to fit through the Panama Canal , they took that to the limit, as described above.

Third, all four of the Iowa class battleships were recommissioned and refitted under the Reagan Administration as part of Navy Secretary John F. August 27, October 26, Original Nickname. Additional Nickname.

Standard Displacement.

 
 

Armament of the Iowa-class battleship – Wikipedia

 
The Iowa class was a class of six fast battleships ordered by the United States Navy in and They were initially intended to intercept fast. The Iowa-class battleships are the most heavily armed gunships the United States Navy has ever put to sea, due to the continual development of their onboard.

 

Iowa class – iowa class: –

 

Mark 12 guns. Four were completed; two more were laid down but canceled at war’s end and scrapped. Like other third-generation American battleships, the Iowa class followed the design pattern set forth in the preceding North Carolina -class and South Dakota -class battleships, which emphasized speed and the secondary and anti-aircraft batteries.

Between the mids and the early s, the Iowa -class battleships fought in four U. All four were reactivated and armed with missiles during the s as part of the ship Navy initiative; during ‘s Operation Desert Storm , Missouri and Wisconsin fired missiles and inch mm guns at Iraqi targets. Costly to maintain, the battleships were decommissioned during the post- Cold War drawdown in the early s. All four were initially removed from the Naval Vessel Register ; however, the United States Congress compelled the Navy to reinstate two of them on the grounds that existing naval gunfire support would be inadequate for amphibious operations.

This resulted in a lengthy debate over whether battleships should have a role in the modern navy. Ultimately, all four ships were stricken from the Naval Vessel Register and released for donation to non-profit organizations. With the transfer of Iowa in , all four are part of various non-profit maritime museums across the U. Work on what would eventually become the Iowa -class battleships began on the first study in early at the direction of Admiral Thomas C.

Hart , head of the General Board. Another design, pursued by the Design Division section of the Bureau of Construction and Repair , was a “cruiser-killer. Their plan fulfilled these requirements with a ship of 50, long tons 51, t , but Chantry believed that more could be done if the ship were to be this large; with a displacement greater than that of most battleships, its armor would only have protected it against the 8-inch mm weapons carried by heavy cruisers. Three improved plans—”A”, “B”, and “C”—were designed at the end of January.

An increase in draft, vast additions to the armor, [N 1] and the substitution of twelve 6-inch mm guns in the secondary battery was common between the three designs. It required , shaft horsepower shp to make It also carried only nine inch guns, in three triple turrets. The weight required for this and a longer belt— feet m , compared with feet m for “B”—meant that the ship was 55, long tons 56, t.

The board requested an entirely new design study, focusing on increasing the size of the 35, ton South Dakota class. However, further studies revealed major problems with the estimates. The speed of the ships meant that more freeboard would be needed both fore and amidships, the latter requiring an additional foot of armored freeboard.

Along with this came the associated weight in supporting these new strains: the structure of the ship had to be reinforced and the power plant enlarged to avoid a drop in speed. In all, about 2, long tons 2, t had to be added, and the large margin the navy designers had previously thought they had—roughly 5, long tons 5, t —was suddenly vanishing. It also allowed the draft of the ships to be increased, meaning that the ships could be shortened lowering weight and the power reduced since a narrower beam reduces drag.

The caliber gun weighed some long tons t more than the 45 caliber did; the barbette size also had to be increased so the total weight gain was about 2, long tons 2, t , putting the ship at a total of 46, long tons 47, t —well over the 45, long ton limit. An apparent savior appeared in a Bureau of Ordnance preliminary design for a turret that could carry the 50 caliber guns in a smaller barbette.

This breakthrough was shown to the General Board as part of a series of designs on 2 June However, the Bureau of Ordnance continued working on a larger barbette design, while the Bureau of Construction and Repair utilized the smaller barbettes in the final planning of the new battleships. As the bureaus were independent of one another, they did not realize that the two plans could not go together until November , when the design was in the final stages of refinement.

By this time, the ships could not use the larger barbette, as it would require massive alterations to the design and would result in substantial weight penalties. The General Board was astounded; one member asked the head of the Bureau of Ordnance if it had occurred to him that Construction and Repair would have wanted to know what turret his subordinates were working on “as a matter of common sense”.

A complete scrapping of plans was only avoided when designers within the Bureau of Ordnance were able to design a new caliber gun, the Mark 7 , that was both lighter and smaller in outside diameter; this allowed it to be placed in a turret that would fit in the smaller barbette. As drew to a close the design of the Iowa s was nearly complete, but it would continuously evolve as the battleships were under construction. These revisions included changing the design of the foremast, replacing the original 1.

The result of this was clearly beneficial: “The prospective effect of flooding was roughly halved and the number of uptakes and hence of openings in the third deck greatly reduced. For half a century prior to laying [the Iowa class] down, the U. Navy had consistently advocated armor and firepower at the expense of speed. Even in adopting fast battleships of the North Carolina class , it had preferred the slower of two alternative designs.

Great and expensive improvements in machinery design had been used to minimize the increased power on the designs rather than make extraordinary powerful machinery hence much higher speed practical.

Yet the four largest battleships the U. Navy produced were not much more than knot versions of the knot, 35, tonners that had preceded them. The Iowa s showed no advance at all in protection over the South Dakota s. The principal armament improvement was a more powerful inch gun, 5 calibers longer. Ten thousand tons was a very great deal to pay for 6 knots. A view of the door and inch mm thick armored citadel of the battleship New Jersey.

Like all battleships, the Iowa s carried heavy armor protection against shellfire and bombs with significant underwater protection against torpedoes. The magazines and engine rooms were protected by an armored belt The extra armor provided protection from fire directly ahead, which was considered more likely given the high speed of the Iowa class. The Iowa -class torpedo defense was virtually the same as the South Dakota ‘ s. Each side of the ship was protected below the waterline by two tanks mounted outside the belt armor , and separated by a bulkhead.

These tanks were initially planned to be empty, but in practice were filled with water or fuel oil. The armored belt tapered to a thickness of 4 inches mm below the waterline. Behind the armored belt there was a void, and then another bulkhead. The outer hull was intended to detonate a torpedo, with the outer two compartments absorbing the shock and with any splinters or debris being stopped by the armored belt and the empty compartment behind it.

In the Navy discovered that this system was considerably less effective than earlier torpedo defense systems, but by then it was too late to change the design. These guns fire explosive— and armor-piercing shells, and can fire a inch mm shell approximately The guns are 66 feet 20 m long 50 times their inch mm bore, or 50 calibers from breechface to muzzle.

About 43 feet 13 m protrudes from the gun house. Each gun weighs about , pounds , kg without the breech, or , pounds , kg with the breech. The maximum firing rate for each gun is two rounds per minute. Each gun rests within an armored turret, but only the top of the turret protrudes above the main deck. The turret extends either four decks Turrets 1 and 3 or five decks Turret 2 down. The lower spaces contain rooms for handling the projectiles and storing the powder bags used to fire them.

Each turret required a crew of between 85 and men to operate. The ship could fire any combination of its guns, including a broadside of all nine. The large-caliber guns were designed to fire two different conventional inch mm shells: the armor-piercing Mk.

At 35, yards 20 mi; 32 km , a shell from a 45 cal would strike a ship at an angle of In the s, the W23, an adaptation of the W19 nuclear artillery shell was developed specifically for the inch mm guns.

The shell had an estimated yield of 15 to 20 kilotons of TNT 63, to 84, GJ , [30] and its introduction made the Iowa -class battleship’s 16 in guns the world’s largest nuclear artillery , [31] and made these four battleships the only U.

Navy ships ever to have nuclear shells for naval guns. In keeping with tradition, a 5-inch gun mount on each Iowa -class battleship was manned by the ship’s Marine Detachment. Originally designed to be mounted upon destroyers built in the s, these guns were so successful that they were added to a myriad of American ships during the Second World War, including every major ship type and many smaller warships constructed between and They were considered to be “highly reliable, robust and accurate” by the Navy’s Bureau of Ordnance.

It was The guns’ elevation could be raised or lowered at about 15 degrees per second. They could be turned at about 25 degrees per second. However, this did not mean that it possessed inferior anti-air abilities.

As proven during gunnery tests conducted aboard North Carolina the gun could consistently shoot down aircraft flying at 12,—13, feet 2.

The removal of four of the gun mounts was required for the battleships to be outfitted with the armored box launchers needed to carry and fire Tomahawk missiles. At the time of the Gulf War, these guns had been largely relegated to littoral defense for the battleships. Since each battleship carried a small detachment of Marines aboard, the Marines would man one of the 5 in gun mounts. At the time of their commissioning, all four of the Iowa -class battleships were equipped with 20 quad 40 mm mounts and 49 single 20 mm mounts.

The Oerlikon 20 mm anti-aircraft gun , one of the most heavily produced anti-aircraft guns of the Second World War, entered service in and replaced the 0. When the Iowa -class battleships were commissioned in and they carried twenty quad Bofors 40 mm anti-aircraft gun mounts, which they used for defense against enemy aircraft. These heavy guns were also employed in the protection of allied aircraft carriers operating in the Pacific Theater of World War II , and accounted for roughly half of all Japanese aircraft shot down between 1 October and 1 February Navy moved quickly to develop a 45,ton battleship that would pass through the ft 34 m wide Panama Canal.

Drawing on a empirical formula for predicting a ship’s maximum speed based on scale-model studies in flumes of various hull forms and propellers [N 5] and a newly developed empirical theorem that related waterline length to maximum beam, the Navy drafted plans for a battleship class with a maximum beam of ft 33 m which, when multiplied by 7.

The equivalent machinery on New Jersey and Wisconsin was provided by Westinghouse. Steam was normally transmitted to four engine rooms numbered 1 to 4. Each engine room was aft of its associated fire room.

For higher speeds, all eight boilers were lit. Electricity drove many systems aboard ship, including rotating the turrets and elevating the guns. Each SSTG generated 1. The SSTGs were powered by steam from the same boilers that fed the engines. To allow battle-damaged electrical circuits to be repaired or bypassed, the lower decks of the ship had a Casualty Power System whose large three-wire cables and wall outlets called “biscuits” could be used to re-route power.

When they were commissioned during World War II, the Iowa -class battleships came equipped with two aircraft catapults designed to launch floatplanes. Initially, the Iowa s carried the Vought OS2U Kingfisher [52] and Curtiss SC Seahawk , [52] [53] both of which were employed to spot for the battleship’s main gun batteries—and, in a secondary capacity, perform search-and-rescue missions.

The Iowa class were the only battleships with the speed required for post-war operations based around fast aircraft carrier task forces.

 
 

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