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Page [unnumbered]. A Brief History of the Urlited States, A Brief History of France, The same publishers also offer the following standard scientific vworks, being more extended or difficult treatises than those of Prof. Steele, though still of Academic grade.

The problems contained in all the books are fully, and, it is thought, accurately solved. Great pains have been taken to revise and compare them carefully.

The practical questions are answered, often not in full, yet enough so to give the key to the more perfect reply. The use of the text-books is presupposed, and the statements merely supplement, or apply the fuller theories therein contained and explained. On many points there may be a difference of opinion. The author often finds in his own classes a wide diversity. On mooted questions he has merely advanced one view, leaving the subject open for the discussion of other theories.

Minute directions are given, pages inclusive, for performing a course of experiments in Chemistry. It is hoped that these may be of service to teachers who, with incomplete appadatus, are trying to illustrate to their pupils some of the principles of that science.

In all cases of doubt or misunderstanding with regard to the answers or solutions, the author will be pleased to correspond with any teacher using the Series ELMIRA, Mdrch 19, Page 4.

LThe bold-faced figures refer to the pages of the Philosophy; the others to the number of the Practical Questions. If one is riding rapbidly, in which direction will he be thrown when the horse is suddenly stopped f. In the same direction in which he is going. He has the inotion of the carriage, and his inertia carries him forward. Wkhen standing in a boat, why, as it starts, are we thrown backward?

Because the inertia of our bodies keeps them stationary, while the boat carries our feet forward. WIhen carrying a cup of tea, if we move or stop quickly, why is the liquid liable to spill? The inertia of the tea tends to keep it still or in motion, as the case may be. If we move the cup quickly, the motion is not imparted to the liquid soon enough to overcome the inertia. When, therefore, we start, the tea spills out backward; or, when we stop, it spills out forward. We understand this if we can tell why a cup of tea is more liable to spill than one of sugar.

Why, whzen closely Jbursued, can we escape by dodging? We turn sharply. Our pursuer, ignorant of our design, cannot overcome his inertia so as to turn as quickly, and hence is carried past. Because its inertia tends to carry it directly forward.

A puzzling question in this connection is-Why is a sleigh more liable to tip over than a wagon? Because the friction between the card and the cent is so slight that, by a quick snap, you can overcome the inertia of the former without imparting any fbrce to the latter.

Why, after the sails of a vessel are furled, does it s;ll continue to move; and why, after the sails are all spread, does it require some time to -et under full headway? Its inertia must be overcome in the one case by the resistance of the air and water, and in the other by the force of the wind. Why can we not weld a piece of copper lo one oj iron? Cohesion acts only between molecules of the same kind. Because its force of cohesion is stronger. WVhy is a piece of iron, when perfectly welded, stronger than before it was brokcn?

By the hammering, more particles are brought within the range of cohesion. Because they vary in cohesive force. Why, when you drop medicine, will the last few dr’fp. Why are drops larger if you drop them slowly f There is more time for the adhesive force of the bottle to act on the liquid, and so a larger drop can be gathered. Why is a tube stronger than a rod of the same weight?

So true is this, that long beams heavily loaded have been broken by a mere scratch of a pin on the lower side.

The particles along the centre break last. They rather aid in the fracture, since they afford a fulcrum for the rest of the rod, acting as the long arms of a lever, to act upon.

In a tube the particles at the centre are removed and all concentrated at the outside, where the first strain is felt. See Physiology, p. Why, if you melt scraps of zinc, will they form a solid mass when cooled? The heat overcomes, in part, the attraction of cohesion, so that the particles flow freely on each other. They now all come within the range of cohesion, so that when the metal cools they are held by that force in a solid mass. In what liquids is the force of cohesion greatest?

Mercury, molasses, etc. Name some solids that will volatilize without melting? Arsenic, camphor. Why does cloth shrink when wet? By capillary attraction the water is drawn into the pores ot the cloth.

The fibres are thus expanded sidewise and shortened lengthwise. The cloth “fulls uIf” or thickens while it shortens and narrows shrinks in the process. IWhy do sailors at a boat-race wet the sails? The pores being full and expanded make the sails more compact. They will therefore hold the wind better. Why does not writing-ipaer blot? Because the pores are filled with size.

See Chemistry, p. Why does iainztprevent woodfrom shrinking? Because it fills the pores of the wood. Ordinarily the former is concave and the latter convex. Why can we not dry a toweltierfectly by wringing? Because of the strength of the capillary force by which the water is held in the pores of the cloth. Why will not water run through a fine sieve when the w7ires have been greased? Because the grease repels the water and so prevents capi!. Why will camnihor dissolve in alcohol and not in water?

Because there is a strong adhesion between the alcohol and camphor, and little, if any, between the water and camphor. Why will mercury rise in zinc turbes as water does zn glass tubes? Because of the strong adhesion between zinc and mercury. Why is it so diffcult to lift a board out of water? Because of the adhesion between the board and the water.

Why will ink spilled on the edge of a book extendfurther inside than f stsilled on the side of the leaves? Because the capillary pores of the paper are short, being only the thickness of a leaf, while the capillary spaces between the leaves are longer and continuous. If you should hali ten to spill some ink on the edge of,your book, ought you lo press the leaves togfether?. Because you would make the capillary spaces between tlie leasves smaller, and so the ink would rise in them further.

WZhy can you not mix oil and water? Because there is no adhesion between them. Because in the former case there is an adhesion, in the latter none. I 6 Why is a tub or fail liable to fall to pieces if noalflled with water or kefpt in the cellar?

Because the moisture dries out of the pores, and the wood shrinks so as to let the hoops fall off. NAame instances where the attraction of adhesion is stronger than that of cohesion. WXTood fastened by glue will often split before the glue will yield. Paper stuck with paste, and bricks with mortar, are also examples.

When an afttle fills to thegroulrd, how izmuch doesthe earth rise to meet it? The earth falls as much less distance than the apple, as its mass is greater. Uthat causes the sawdust in a mill-ofind to collect in large masses? The attraction of gravity which exists between all bodies, whereby they attract each other. All bodies on the earth would tend to approach each other, and the big ones would gather all the little ones around them were they as free to move as the sawdust floating on water.

Will a body weigh more in a valley than on a mountain P It will, because the attraction of the earth is greater. Will a pfound weight fall mIore slowly than a tzwo-fiound Veight? They will both fall in the same time, except the slight difference which is caused by the resistance of the air. Galileo propounded this view and proved it, in the presence of a xast crowd, by letting unequal weights fall from the leaning towez of Pisa.

Is the centre qf gravity always within a body-as, fao examiple, a ring.?


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